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        1 - Impact of Entrepreneurial Ecosystem on Entrepreneurial Activity: GEM based Analysis
        Hossein Torabi Masoud  Kheyrandish mohsen mohammadi Khiyare
        Many scholars have highlighted the importance of entrepreneurship ecosystems in improving entrepreneurial activities, but, nevertheless, studies that are quantitatively analyzing the interrelationship between entrepreneurship ecosystems and their impact on increasing en Full Text
        Many scholars have highlighted the importance of entrepreneurship ecosystems in improving entrepreneurial activities, but, nevertheless, studies that are quantitatively analyzing the interrelationship between entrepreneurship ecosystems and their impact on increasing entrepreneurial activities at various stages of entrepreneurship are very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill the gap in entrepreneurship literature and also to study the effect of these two variables in different stages of development of countries. In this regard, using data from 107 GEM countries During 2008-2017 and Generalized Momentary Econometric Model (GMM), the relationship between the components of the entrepreneurship ecosystem and economic growth has been estimated. The results showed that the impact of the financial environment on the entrepreneurial stages in the resource-based countries was negative and significant. However, the impact of entrepreneurship education, dynamics of the domestic market, social status of entrepreneurs (entrepreneurial culture) and the GDP growth have had a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurship in these countries. The results also indicate that the impact of ecosystem factors such as government policies and programs, taxes and bureaucracy, entrepreneurial education at basic and academic levels, R&D transfer, infrastructure, market dynamics and appropriate business environment have positive and significant impact on the growth of entrepreneurial activities in efficiency and innovation-driven countries. Overall, the results of this study indicate that in an ecosystem with low barriers to entry, government support policies for entrepreneurs, basic and higher education, commercial and legal infrastructure, and normative culture supporting entrepreneurship increases entreprenurial activities Manuscript Document